A Blog Book, by Victor Grauer



. . . . . for Alan Lomax, who lives . . . . .



I felt that their music came from the back of time, but also, to a certain extent, from my own depths.

Simha Arom


For Table of Contents, see Blog Archive, below and to the right.


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Partial Bibliography

Ambrose, Stanley. 1998. Late Pleistocene Human Population Bottlenecks, Volcanic Winter, and the Differentiation of Modern Humans. Journal of Human Evolution 34:623-51.

Ambrose Stanley and Williams, M. 2009. Supervolcano Eruption -- In Sumatra -- Deforested India 73,000 Years Ago. ScienceDaily (Nov. 24, 2009).

Arom, S. 1976. The Use of Play-Back Techniques in the Study of Oral Polyphonies. Ethnomusicology 20(3), 483-519.

--------- 1991. African Polyphony and Polyrhythm: Musical Structure and Methodology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

------- 2002. Musical Anthology of the Aka Pygmies. Two audio CD’s with accompanying pamphlet. Ocora C560171.

Barnard, Alan. 1992. Hunters and herders of southern Africa:a comparative ethnography of the Khoisan peoples. Cambridge University Press.

-----------------. 2006. Kalahari revisionism, Vienna and the ‘indigenous peoples’ debate. Social Anthropology 14 (1):1-16.

Batini, C. et al. 2011. Signatures of the pre-agricultural peopling processes in sub-Saharan Africa as revealed by the phylogeography of early Y chromosome lineages.  Molecular Biology and Evolution.

Behar et al. 2008. The Dawn of Human Matrilineal Diversity, The American Journal of Human Genetics, doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.04.002

Berghaus, Günter. 2004. New Perspectives on Prehistoric Art. Greenwood.

Biesele, Megan and Kxao Royal-/O/OO. 1999. The Ju/’hoansi of Botswana and Namibia. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers. Richard Lee and Richard Daly, eds. Pp. 205-209. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.


Birdsell, Joseph. 1967. Preliminary data on the trihybrid origin of the Australian Aborigines. Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania, 2 (2), pp 100-55.
Bishop, Douglas. 2005. A Worldwide History of the Pan Flute. www.panflutejedi.com/pan-flute-history-page.html, accessed April 13, 2006.

Blench, Roger. 1999. Are the African Pygmies an Ethnographic Fiction? In Challenging Elusiveness. Biesbrouck, Elders and Rossel, eds. Pp. 41-60. Leiden:Research School for Asian, African, and Amerindian Studies, the University of Leiden.

----------------. 2002. Reconstructing African Music History. Unpublished draft.

Boas, Franz. 1940. Race, Language and Culture. Macmillan: New York.

Brown, Steven. 2000. The Musilanguage Model of Musical Evolution, in Wallin, Merker & Brown, eds., The Origins of Music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Buchner, Alexander. 1980. Encyclopédie des instruments de musique. Paris: Gründ.

Bukofzer, M. 1940. Popular Polyphony in the Middle Ages, The Musical Quarterly, vol. 26, no. 1.

Burstyn, S. 1983. Gerald of Wales and the Sumer Canon, The Journal of Musicology, Vol. 2, No. 2.
The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers. 1999. Richard Lee and Richard Daly, eds. 

Cambridge:Cambridge University Press.

Cavalli-Sforza, Luca, et al. 1996. The History and Geography of Human Genes. (Abridged paperback edition.) Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Chen, Yu-Sheng et al. 2000. mtDNA Variation in the South African Kung and Khwe—and Their Genetic Relationships to Other African Populations. American Journal of Human Genetics 66(4): 1362–1383.

Cordaux, R. et al. 2003. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals diverse histories of tribal populations from India. European Journal of Human Genetics, Mar;11(3):253-64.

Dissanayake, Ellen. 2008. If music is the food of love, what about survival and reproductive success? Musicae Scientiae, Special Issue, 169-195.
 
Draper, Patricia. 1978. The Learning Environment for Aggression and Anti-Social Behavior among the !Kung. Department of Anthropology Faculty Publications, University of Nebraska. Digital Commons. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/anthropologyfacpub/12.

Du, Shanshan. 2005. Frameworks for Societies in Balance: A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Gender Equality. Societies of Peace: 2nd World Congress on Matriarchal Studies. http://www.second-congress-matriarchal-studies.com/du.html

England, Nicholas. 1967. Bushman Counterpoint. Journal of the International Folk Music Council 19:58–66.

———. 1995. Music Among the Z˜u’|’wã-si and Related Peoples of Namibia, Botswana, and Angola. New York: Garland.

Eliade, Mircea. 1964. Shamanism. Bollingen Press.

Erickson, Edwin. 1969-70. The Song Trace: Song Styles and the Ethnohistory of Aboriginal America. Ph. D. dissertation, Columbia University.

--------------------. 1976. Tradition and Evolution in Song Style: A Re-analysis of Cantometric Data, Cross-Cultural Research, November 1976, vol. 11 no. 4, pp. 277-308.

Finkel, Michael. 2009. The Hadza. National Geographic Magazine, 12.

Frisbie, Charlotte. 1971. Anthropological and Ethnomusicological Implications of a Comparative Analysis of Bushmen and African Pygmy Music. Ethnology 10(3):265-291.

Fukuyama, Francis. 2011. The Origins of Political Order. Farrar, Straus and Giroux:New York.

Fürniss, Susanne. 2006. Aka Polyphony: Music, Theory, Back and Forth. In Analytical Studies in World Music. Michael Tenzer, ed. Pp. 163–204. New York:Oxford University Press.
Gimbutas, M. 1994. The Civilization of the Goddess:The World of Old Europe. New York: Harper-Collins.

Grauer, Victor. 1965. Some Song Style Clusters. Ethnomusicology 9:265–71.
------. 2006. Echoes of Our Forgotten Ancestors. The World of Music 48(2):5-58.
------. 2007a. Roots. Musical Traditions. MT 207. http://www.mustrad.org.uk/.
------. 2007b. Music 000001. Internet Blog. http://music000001.blogspot.com/.
------. 2007c. New Perspectives on the Kalahari Debate: A Tale of Two Genomes. Before Farming 2(4)1-14. http://www.waspress.co.uk/journals/beforefarming/.
------. 2009. Concept, Style, and Structure in the Music of the African Pygmies and Bushmen:A Study in Cross-Cultural Analysis. Ethnomusicology 53(3):396-424.

Grinker, Roy. 1994. Houses in the Rainforest: Ethnicity and Inequality Among Farmers and Foragers in Central Africa. U. of California Press.

Hewlett, Barry. 1991. Intimate Fathers: The Nature and Context of Aka Pygmy Paternal Infant Care. Anne Arbor:University of Michigan Press.
------------. 1996. Cultural Diversity Among African Pygmies. In Cultural Diversity Among Twentieth Century Foragers. Susan Kent, ed. Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press. http://www.vancouver.wsu.edu/fac/hewlett/cultdiv.html.

Heylighen, Francis. 2005. Occam’s Razor. pespmc1.vub.ac.be/OCCAMRAZ.html, accessed April 7, 2006.

Hitchcock, Don. 2009. Lion Camp: Kostienki/Kostenki on the Don River. http://donsmaps.com/lioncamp.html, accessed April 7, 2006.

Hohmann, Gottfried and Fruth, Barbara  1994. Structure and use of distance calls in wild bonobos (Pan paniscus). International Journal of Primatology Volume 15, Number 5, 767-782, DOI: 10.1007/BF02737430.


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Ingman, M. and Gyllensten, U. 2003. Mitochondrial Genome Variation and Evolutionary History of Australian and New Guinean Aborigines. Genome Res. 2003 13: 1600-1606

Izikowitz, Karl Gustav. 1970 Musical and other sound instruments of the South American Indians; a comparative ethnographical study. East Ardsley, England: S. R. Publishers.

Jones, D. 2003 Kinship and Deep History: Exploring Connections between Culture Areas, Genes, and Languages. American Anthropologist 105(3):501-514.

Jones, Sacha. 2007. The Toba Supervolcanic Eruption, in The evolution and history of human populations in South Asia, ed. Petraglia and Allchin.

Jordania, J. 2006. Who Asked the First Question? The Origins of Human Choral Singing, Intelligence, Language and Speech. Tbilisi: Tbilisi Ivane Javakhishvili State University Institute of Classical, Byzantine and Modern Greek Studies.

Kárpáti, J. 1980. Myth and Reality in the Theory of Chinese Tonal System. Studia Musicologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, T. 22, Fasc. 1/4.

Kent, Susan, ed. 1996. Cultural Diversity Among Twentieth Century Foragers. Cambridge, England:Cambridge University Press.

Kisliuk, Michelle. 1998. Seize the Dance. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kuttner, Fritz. 1965. A Musicological Interpretation of the Twelve Lüs in China's Traditional Tone System. Ethnomusicology, Vol. 9, No. 1.

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Lomax, Alan. 1959. Folksong Style. American Anthropologist 61, 927-54.
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Lomax, Alan, et al. 1968. Folk Song Style and Culture. Washington:National Association for the Advancement of Science.

Maji, S., Krithika, S. and T.S. Vasulu. 2009. Phylogeographic distribution of mitochondrial DNA macrohaplogroup M in India. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 88, No. 1

Maju. 2009. Mtdna Phylogenetic Tree. Leherensuge blog. http://leherensuge.blogspot.com/2009/04/mtdna-tree-version-11.html

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Marshall, Lorna. 1999. Nyae Nyae !Kung Beliefs and Rites.

Merker, B. 2000. Synchronous Chorusing and Human Origins, in Wallin, Merker & Brown, eds., The Origins of Music. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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Moreno, Eduardo. 2011. The society of our ‘out of Africa’ ancestors (I): The migrant warriors that colonized the world. Communicative & Integrative Biology 4:2, 1-9.

Nattiez, Jean Jacques. 1999. Inuit Throat Games and Siberian Throat Singing: A Comparative, Historical and Semiological Approach. Ethnomusicology 43(3):399-418.

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Ojamaa, T. and Aru, J. 2005. Can Hyperventilation be a trance mechanism in Nganasan ritual dance accompaniment. Proceedings of the Conference on Interdisciplinary Musicology, Montreal Canada.

Olivier, Emmanuelle. 1998. Bushman Vocal Music:The Illusion of Polyphony. In Language, Identity, and Conceptualization among the Khoisan. Mathias Schladt, ed. Pp. 359–70. Cologne: Rüdiger Köppe Verlag.

Olivier, Emmanuelle and Susanne Fürniss. 1997. Systématique musicale pygmée et bochiman: Deux conceptions africaines du contrepoint. Musurgia 4(3):10–30.
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