A Blog Book, by Victor Grauer

. . . . . for Alan Lomax, who lives . . . . .

I felt that their music came from the back of time, but also, to a certain extent, from my own depths.

Simha Arom


This page was compiled for the benefit of those reading the paperback version (available via Amazon.com), from which most of the figures have been omitted. A printer-friendly pdf file can be downloaded from the following link: Figures. (PC users should right-click and select Save link as or Save target as -- Mac users can access the same options by command clicking, using the Apple key.)

To enlarge an image, right click and select "Open link in new tab" -- if you then left click on the image in the new tab, it should expand.


Figure 0.1 - Wile E. Coyote


Figure 0.2 - Where Do We Come From, Who Are We, Where Are We Going? (Paul Gauguin)

Chapter Two

Figure 2.1 African mtDNA (Tishkoff 2007)

Figure 2.2 Nuclear DNA (Tishkoff 2009)

Figure 2.3 Y Chromosome DNA (Y Chromosome Consortium 2002)

Figure 2.4 mtDNA (Behar et al. 2008)

Chapter Four


Figure 4.1 Bushmen huts.

Figure 4.2 Baka pygmy hut

Figure 4.3 Mbuti huts

Chapter Five

Figure 5.1 Autosomal DNA in Africa (Tishkoff et al. 2009)

Figure 5.2 Hadza Hut

 Figure 5.3 Hadza Woman
Chapter Seven

Figure 7.1 Man with scarification marks -- Africa

Figure 7.3 Tasmanian Woman

Figure 7.4 Great Andamanese.

Chapter Eight

Figure 8.1 Australian Huts

Figure 8.2 Dorze hut

Figure 8.3 Dorze hut

Figure 8.4 Zulu huts

Figure 8.5 Swazi huts

Figure 8.6 Traditional Zulu Hut

Figure 8.7 Stone “Beehive” Hut -- Bronze Age Ireland

Figure 8.8 “Celtic” Hut (reconstruction) – Wales

Figure 8.9 Traditional Huts – Dani

Figure 8.10 “Beehive” Mud Huts -- Harran, Turkey

Figure 8.11 Syrian Mud Huts

Figure 8.12 Eskimo with dog and igloo

Figure 8.13 Eskimos with different kind of Igloo

Figure 8.14 The Wigglesworth Observatory, under construction

Figure 8.15 Australia -- “Aboriginal hut without its turf covering.”

Figure 8.16 Hadza Hut

Figure 8.17 Bushmen huts

Figure 8.18 Australian huts

Figure 8.19 Tierra del Fuego

Figure 8.20 Framework for Poverty Point hut.

Chapter Nine

Figure 9.2 Early Migration Paths (Oppenheimer 2004a, The Journey of Mankind)
Figure 9.3 Haplogroup M in India (Krithika and Vasulu 2009)

Figure 9.4 Tone Languages in blue (WALS 2011)
Chapter Ten

Figure 10.1 Toba Aftermath (Oppenheimer 2004a, The Journey of Mankind)

Figure 10.2 Distribution of M Haplogroups in India (Metspalu et al. 2004)

Figure 10.3 "The segregation of West Eurasian, East Eurasian and South Asian mtDNA pools" (Metspalu et al. 2004)

Figure 10.4 Cosmic microwave background (COBE)

Figure 10.5 Detail of Fig. 10.1

Figure 10.6 Detail of Fig. 10.3

Chapter Eleven

Figure 11.1 Eurasia -- later migrations (Metspalu et al. 2004) 

Chapter Twelve

 Figure 12.1 Birdbone Pipes from Kostenki (Hitchcock 2009)

 Figure 12.2 Mammoth-Bone Hut (reconstruction)

Figure 12.3 Lithuanian Trumpets (Sadie 1984, iii:189)

Figure 12.4 Flute and Horn Ensemble, Chad (Blench 2002)

Figure 12.5 Panpipe Duet -- Plekhovo (Velitchkina 1996)

Figure 12.6 Examples of Medieval Hocket (Sanders 1974)

Figure 12.7 Comparison of Medieval and African Bushmen hocket (Sanders 1974; England 1995)

Figure 12.8 Medieval Motet, Amor Potest (Nakamura 2004)

Chapter Thirteen

Figure 13.1 Indo-European Migrations (Wikipedia)

Figure 13.2 Paleolithic Rock Art -- from Spain (Gimbutas 1991)

Figure 13.3 Images from rock paintings attributed to Bushmen artists -- southern Africa

Figure 13.4 "Polyphony and Complementarity" (Lomax et al. 1968:167)

Chapter Fourteen

Figure 14.1 Sunda and Sahul

Figure 14.2 Native Australian Language Families

Figure 14.3 Joseph Birdsell with adult Australian Pygmy

Chapter Fifteen

Figure 15.1 New World Migrations

Chapter Sixteen

Figure 16.1 Phylogenetic Map of Musical Evolution. For details on how it was constructed and how to interpret it, see Appendix B.

Figure 16.2 Siamang Air Sac

Chapter Eighteen
 Figure 18.1 (from Xinhuanet, April 5, 2004)

Appendix A
  Figure A1: Outline of the Aka Pygmy song, “Makala,” from Kisliuk 1998. Vertical lines and brackets have been added to clarify certain tonal and motivic relationships.

Figure A2: Outline of the Ju/’hoansi Bushmen “Eland Song-little,” from England 1995. Brackets added to clarify certain motivic relationships.

Figure A3: Ju/’hoansi “Eland Song Great,” from England 1967. Vertical lines added to indicate pitch class identities.

Figure A4 - Mbuti Song, "Amabele-o-i-e" -- recorded by Hugh Tracey, transcribed by Victor Grauer

Figure A5 -- Ju/'hoansi Bushmen Song, "The Lion," recorded by Emanuelle Olivier, transcribed by Victor Grauer

Figure A6: Cantometric Profile of Aka Divining Song, "Diye."

Figure A7: Pygmy and Bushmen Profiles Displayed Side by Side
Figure A8 – Modal Profiles for African Pygmies, Bushmen and Farmer-Herders Compared (based on Tables A1-A3)

Appendix B

(To enlarge image, right click and select "Open link in new tab" -- if you then left click on the image in the new tab, it should expand):

Figure B1 -- Phylogenetic Map of Musical Evolution -- Grauer

Figure B2 -- Historical Map of Musical Style -- Grauer